Step 2 is the centerpiece of the decision guide. The six second-level steps described here are where we provide the greatest detail for users to learn of types of mitigation for passing wildlife safely over, under and across transportation corridors, how to place that mitigation, how to determine configuration, maintenance needs, and how to begin a cost effectiveness analysis. We end this section with details on establishing a monitoring and evaluation plan. The user will exit this step with a full range of details on how to proceed with carrying out a successful mitigation project. It is expected users will revisit this portion of the guide several times during the planning and adaptive management stages of the project.
2.1 Identify target species, ecological processes, landscape features, and crossing types and accompanying structures: Users will identify potential species present in plan/project area, those that may be affected by the road and traffic, then identify landscape features that may affect wildlife movement and mitigation, and then select the appropriate crossing mitigation and accompanying structures based on ecological and engineering concerns.
2.2 Determine mitigation placement based on target species movements, landscape features, linkages, and ownership, engineering constraints, and possible wildlife-vehicle collision data: Users will work through ecological data, landownership maps, engineering concerns and potential wildlife-vehicle collision data to determine the prime placement options for mitigation.
2.3 Determine configuration requirements for mitigation including dimensions, materials, bottom surface, lighting, noise considerations, human use, and engineering requirements: In this step the user will work through the ecological and engineering requirements of creating the mitigation.
2.4 Determine maintenance needs through consultation with maintenance department: Users are instructed to work with State DOT/Provincial MoT Maintenance department on estimating the maintenance needs, costs, and schedules of mitigation.
2.5 Estimate Cost Effectiveness Based on Long Term Ecological and Safety Benefits: Users are instructed to gather information related to the ecological and safety benefits of reduced wildlife-vehicle collisions in conjunction with ecological benefits of permeability and the costs associated with mitigation to be inserted into a standard benefit cost ratio.
2.6 Determine Monitoring and Evaluation Plan: This step explains to users how to determine success for a mitigation project, identify methods to measure effectiveness, design the monitoring plan, and how to evaluate and proceed with results of monitoring plan in an adaptive management approach.