This is an image map showing a flowchart of the Wildlife and Roads Decision Guide tool. The Decision Guide consists of five major steps, each with its own sub-steps and is intended as a tool for engineers to mitigate the effect of roads on wildlife.

Step 1: Resource Evaluation

Step 1 Introductory paragraph

In this initial step, one considers the need for mitigation through an in-depth process of evaluating ecological and transportation considerations. If the user is new to the transportation planning process, they will find ample explanations in this section dealing with the transportation process and regulatory considerations. If it is deemed necessary to proceed with mitigation, the final part to this step is a methodology to identify goals and objectives of the mitigation.

1.1. Identify Scope of Transportation Plan/Project

1.1 Identify Scope of Transportation Plan/Project: In this very first step users will determine the spatial and temporal (time) extent of the proposed transportation program or project and the information resources necessary to help predict potential effects of the plan/project.

1.2. Identify Wildlife & Fisheries Issues

1.2 Identify Wildlife & Fisheries Issues: We direct the users to a series of steps which first provide a literature base on the effects of roads, and the need for permeability for wildlife. The guide then instructs the user in identifying the species, natural areas, and natural processes that may be affected by the plan/project. At the end of this step, the user will decide if there is a need for mitigation and whether to proceed with the decision guide.

1.3. If Mitigation Need: Identify Goals & Objectives

1.3 Identify Goals & Objectives: If the user has decided from the first two steps that there is a need to mitigate for wildlife, then the potential effects of the plan/project are listed and the possible solutions and the goals of those solutions are developed here. Users will define performance measures or goals of mitigation and identify methods to evaluate how those goals are met over the long term.

Step 2: Identify Solutions and Options

Step 2 Introductory paragraph

Step 2 is the centerpiece of the decision guide. The six second-level steps described here are where we provide the greatest detail for users to learn of types of mitigation for passing wildlife safely over, under and across transportation corridors, how to place that mitigation, how to determine configuration, maintenance needs, and how to begin a cost effectiveness analysis. We end this section with details on establishing a monitoring and evaluation plan. The user will exit this step with a full range of details on how to proceed with carrying out a successful mitigation project. It is expected users will revisit this portion of the guide several times during the planning and adaptive management stages of the project.

2.1 Select General Mitigation Type

2.1 Identify target species, ecological processes, landscape features, and crossing types and accompanying structures: Users will identify potential species present in plan/project area, those that may be affected by the road and traffic, then identify landscape features that may affect wildlife movement and mitigation, and then select the appropriate crossing mitigation and accompanying structures based on ecological and engineering concerns.

2.2 Determine Placement

2.2 Determine mitigation placement based on target species movements, landscape features, linkages, and ownership, engineering constraints, and possible wildlife-vehicle collision data: Users will work through ecological data, landownership maps, engineering concerns and potential wildlife-vehicle collision data to determine the prime placement options for mitigation.

2.3 Determine Configuration

2.3 Determine configuration requirements for mitigation including dimensions, materials, bottom surface, lighting, noise considerations, human use, and engineering requirements: In this step the user will work through the ecological and engineering requirements of creating the mitigation.

2.4 Define Maintenance Needs

2.4 Determine maintenance needs through consultation with maintenance department: Users are instructed to work with State DOT/Provincial MoT Maintenance department on estimating the maintenance needs, costs, and schedules of mitigation.

2.5 Estimate Cost Effectiveness

2.5 Estimate Cost Effectiveness Based on Long Term Ecological and Safety Benefits: Users are instructed to gather information related to the ecological and safety benefits of reduced wildlife-vehicle collisions in conjunction with ecological benefits of permeability and the costs associated with mitigation to be inserted into a standard benefit cost ratio.

2.6 Determine Monitoring & Evaluation Plan

2.6 Determine Monitoring and Evaluation Plan: This step explains to users how to determine success for a mitigation project, identify methods to measure effectiveness, design the monitoring plan, and how to evaluate and proceed with results of monitoring plan in an adaptive management approach.

Refer to Step 1.3 Goals and Objectives for Project To Help Identify Success